APA Style Formatting Guide

The American Psychological Association (APA) Style is an author-date citation style system which uses in-text citations and a reference list or bibliography at the end of the document, providing full details of all the sources cited in the paper.


Jump to: Books | Journals | Websites | Newspapers


Overview:

References:

  • The recommended heading for the bibliography / reference list is References.
  • Each citation / reference should be formatted with a hanging indent.


Books


Rule for References Entry:
To cite a book, list the following elements in order:
    1. Name(s) of the author(s) (Author #1 Last Name, Initials);
    2. Year of publication (within parentheses);
    3. Title of the book (italicized);
    4. Place of publication;
    5. Publisher's name.


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Journals / Periodicals


Rule for References Entry:
To cite a journal / periodical, list the following elements in order:
    1. Name(s) of the author(s) (Author #1 Last Name, Initials);
    2. Year of publication (within parentheses);
    3. Title of the article;
    4. Title of the publication (italicized);
    5. Volume number (italicized);
    6. Issue number (within parentheses);
    7. Page number(s).


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Websites / Online Resources


Rule for References Entry:
To cite a website, list the following elements in order:
    1. Name(s) of the author(s) (Author #1 Last Name, Initials);
    2. Year of publication (within parentheses);
    3. Title of the webpage;
    4. Name of the website;
    5. The word 'retrieved';
    6. Date accessed;
    7. URL.


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Newspapers


Rule for References Entry:
To cite a newspaper, list the following elements in order:
    1. Name(s) of the author(s) (Author #1 Last Name, Initials);
    2. Year, Month and Date of publication (within parentheses);
    3. Title of the article;
    4. Name of the newspaper (italicized);
    5. Page number(s).


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