Chicago Style Formatting Guide

The Chicago Manual of Style was developed by the University of Chicago Press and involves in-text citation accompanied by footnotes as well as a bibliography at the end of the document, which provides full details of all the sources cited.


Jump to: Books | Journals | Websites | Newspapers


Overview:

In-text Citations:

An in-text citation is a short parenthetical description within the text to acknowledge and reference a particular source.

Footnotes:

  • Footnotes are used to indicate a citation.
  • A subscript number is placed within the text (usually at the end of a sentence) to indicate a footnote.
  • The number is repeated at the beginning of the footnote at the bottom of the page, and is full size, (not superscript) and followed by a full stop.
  • When citing a source for the first time, always cite in full.
  • Subsequent footnotes of the same source (consecutively listed) are replaced with the word ibid, followed by the page number.
  • Subsequent footnotes of the same source (not consecutively listed) are shortened.
  • If a source has three or more authors, always cite in full the first time, and subsequently shortened to First Author et al.

End-text Citations:

A bibliography at the end of the paper providing full details of all sources cited.

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Books


Rule for Footnote Entry:
To cite a book as a footnote, list the following elements in order:
    1. Note number;
    2. Name(s) of the author(s) (First name, Last Name);
    3. Title of the book (italicized);
    4. Place of publication (within parentheses);
    5. Publisher's name (within parentheses);
    6. Date of publication (within parentheses);
    7. Page number(s).



Rule for Bibliography Entry:
To cite a book in a bibliography, list the following elements in order:
    1. Name(s) of the author(s) (Author #1 Last Name, First Name);
    2. Title of the book (italicized);
    3. Place of publication;
    4. Publisher's name;
    5. Date of publication.


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Journals / Periodicals


Rule for Footnote Entry:
To cite a journal / periodical as a footnote, list the following elements in order:
    1. Note number;
    2. Name(s) of the author(s) (First name, Last Name);
    3. Title of the article (in quotations);
    4. Title of the publication (italicized);
    5. Volume number;
    6. Issue number;
    7. Date of publication (within parentheses);
    8. Page number(s).



Rule for Bibliography Entry:
To cite a journal / periodical in a bibliography, list the following elements in order:
    1. Name(s) of the author(s) (Author #1 Last Name, First Name);
    2. Title of the article (in quotations);
    3. Title of the publication (italicized);
    4. Volume number;
    5. Issue number;
    6. Date of publication (within parentheses);
    7. Page number(s).


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Websites / Online Resources


Rule for Footnote Entry:
To cite a website as a footnote, list the following elements in order:
    1. Note number;
    2. Name(s) of the author(s) (First name, Last Name);
    3. Title of the webpage (in quotations);
    4. Name of the website;
    5. Date of publication;
    6. URL;
    7. Date accessed.



Rule for Bibliography Entry:
To cite a website in a bibliography, list the following elements in order:
    1. Name(s) of the author(s) (Author #1 Last Name, First Name);
    2. Title of the webpage (in quotations);
    3. Name of the website;
    4. Date of publication;
    5. URL;
    6. Date accessed.


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Newspapers


Rule for Footnote Entry:
To cite a newspaper as a footnote, list the following elements in order:
    1. Note number;
    2. Name(s) of the author(s) (First name, Last Name);
    3. Title of the article (in quotations);
    4. Name of the newspaper (italicized);
    5. Date of publication.



Rule for Bibliography Entry:
*Please note: According to the Chicago Manual of Style, newspaper articles are not usually included in bibliographies.
To cite a newspaper, list the following elements in order:
    1. Name(s) of the author(s) (Author #1 Last Name, First Name);
    2. Title of the article (in quotations);
    3. Name of the newspaper (italicized);
    4. Date of publication.


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